Aerobic capacity (VO2 max) is the maximum capacity of our body to transport and utilize oxygen during exercise and is partially genetically influenced. During exercise, muscles work harder than at rest and, therefore, need more energy. The ATP energy required by the muscles is produced with the help of oxygen. This is the reason why there is progressive increase in breathing when the intensity of exercises increases. The body needs more oxygen to produce the necessary ATP energy for muscle movement. People of certain genetic types differ in the level of oxygen uptake during exercise.
Genes analyzed: ADRB2, PPARGC1A, PPARA, VEGFA
Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition in which there is loss of hair in one particular part of the body or throughout. It is also known as spot baldness. The prevalence of this condition among the general population is 0.1-0.2%, with a lifetime risk of nearly 2%. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing alopecia areata and may exhibit symptoms like: hair loss, itching, anxiety and broken nails.
Genes analyzed: RNU6-474P – CTLA4, IL2RA, IL2 – IL21, MTCO3P1 – LOC102725019, RAET1M – PHBP1
Amyloidosis is a rare condition in which there is an abnormal buildup of a protein called amyloid. One study showed that the prevalence of this condition in the UK is 20 per million. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing amyloidosis and may exhibit symptoms like: shortness of breath, weight loss, fatigue, bruising, swelling of the tongue, carpel tunnel syndrome and tingling feeling.
Genes analyzed: GRAMD1B, CCND1, LYZ, APOA1, TTR, GSN, FGA
Anemia is a condition in which there are insufficient healthy red blood cells. According to WHO, the highest prevalence of anemia is among pre-school children and the lowest is among men. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing anemia and may exhibit symptoms like: fatigue, malaise, palpitations, brittle nails and shortness of breath.
Genes analyzed: NT5C3A, ALAS2, ABCB7, OR51L1 – OR51P1P, BCL11A, OR51B5, ITPA, RHAG, SLC4A1, YARS2, PUS1, PAH, TMPRSS6, SLC19A2, CUBN, DHFR, AMN, SLC11A2, BAAT, SLC25A38, GPI, HBB, GSS, SLX4, FANCD2, FANCC, FANCI, FANCF, FANCA, FANCM, FANCL, FANCE, BRIP1, FANCI;POLG, ERCC4, RAD51C, PALB2, FANCG, COX4I2, RPS19, RPS28, TSR2, RPS26, RPS10, RPL11, CDAN1, SEC23B, G6PD, BRCA2, BRCA1, TF, TERT, FANCG;VCP, AK1
Anorexia is a psychological eating disorder. The onset of this condition is during early adolescence or young adulthood, constituting 3% of all eating disorders. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing anorexia and may exhibit symptoms like: dizziness, fatigue, low blood pressure, anxiety, extreme weight loss.
Genes analyzed: BDNF, FAM155A, PPP3CA, ALDH4A1, LOC107986384 – LOC107986385, SYTL5 – SRPX, CAMK1D, GRID1, WWOX, ZNF804B, SORCS2
Anxiety disorders are characterized by feelings of fear and anxiety. This disorder affects more than 40 million people in the U.S every year. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing anxiety disorders and may exhibit symptoms like: excessive worry, sweating, hypervigilance, nausea, poor concentration or trembling.
Genes analyzed: LOC105376674 – LOC105376679, LOC107986438 – LOC105379102, PTPRD, LOC101928710 – CYTH1
People of certain genetic type may experience symptoms like redness of the face and neck upon consuming alcohol due to reduced clearance of acetaldehyde which is produced in the body upon consuming alcohol. Though alcohol avoidance per limitation is recommended for all, people with the alcohol flush genotype may be at higher health risk upon alcohol consumption
Genes analyzed: ALDH2
Bloom’s syndrome is a condition characterized by an increased risk of genomic instability. Only about 265 people are believed to have this rare condition. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing Bloom’s syndrome and may exhibit symptoms like: short stature, enlarged blood vessels (telangiectases) and rash on the face (cafe au lait spots) that develop during early childhood on exposure to the sun.
Genes analyzed: BLM
Beta thalassemia is a condition in which there is a reduction in the production of hemoglobin. This condition is highly prevalent in the Mediterranean countries with an annual incidence of symptomatic individuals being 1 in 100,000 people. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing beta thalassemia and affected infants may exhibit symptoms like: turning pale, feeding problem, recurrent fever, liver and abdominal enlargement.
Genes analyzed: HBB, HBBP1, LOC107986647 – LOC105378010
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition that affects the lungs and the digestive system. The prevalence of this condition is about 1 in 2500 among Caucasians. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing this condition and may exhibit symptoms like: Abdominal pain, chronic cough with blood or phlegm, diarrhea, shortness of breath, delayed puberty, fatigue and acute bronchitis.
Genes analyzed: CFTR, LOC103021296, SCNN1A, SLC8A3, AGTR2, LOC102723568, TGFB1
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disease which is characterized by inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract. In the U.S 780,000 people live with Crohn’s disease. People of certain genetic types have a high risk of developing crohn’s disease and may exhibit symptoms like: abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, fatigue, cramping, loss of appetite and blood in the stool.
Genes analyzed: TNFSF15 – LOC645266, CLCA2, CFAP45 – TAGLN2, LOC107986018, MAGI1, AIMP1P2 – TNFSF18, ADAM30, FOXP2 – MDFIC, JAK2, PARK7, ANKRD55, RUNX3, LOC105376878, KSR1, LOC107983964, GAL3ST2, IL23R, PSMB10 – LCAT, TYK2, IRGM, LOC285626 – LOC285627, PUS10, INPP5D – ATG16L1, MAP3K8, SKAP2, BRD2, LOC101927461 – LINC01164, CARD9, IL23R – RNU4ATAC4P; IL23R; IL23R; IL23R – RNU4ATAC4P; IL23R; C1orf141; IL23R – RNU4ATAC4P; C1orf141; IL23R;IL23R;IL23R;IL23R;IL23R-RNU4ATAC4P;IL23R;IL23R;IL23R,LOC105371660-LOC107985457, LINC01475, LOC101929163, BTNL2, ZNF365 – ALDH7A1P4, LOC105376491 – CUL2, LOC105378204, LOC105369735, SMNDC1 – LOC105378482, SLC43A3 – RNA5SP341, LOC105369736, MUC19, PTRF, CDC37, LOC105373399 – LOC107985842, LOC105376493 – CCNY, C5orf56, CDKAL1 – LINC00581, SBSPON – LOC107986891, IL2RA, RAD23BP1 – LOC105376976, BANK1, SMIM3 – IRGM, DNMT3A, LOC105374736 – LOC105374737, C7orf72 – IKZF1, LOC105374410, CLN3, LOC105375746, LOC107984739 – LOC107984725, PPM1G – NRBP1, SLC22A23, LOC101927745, LOC107984997 – RNFT1P2, MYRF, SLC7A10 – CEBPA, CPEB4, LTA – TNF, MRPS35P3 – IPMK, BACH2, PTPN2, ZFP36L1 – MAGOH3P, DENND1B, SBNO2, IL18RAP, NOD2, C10orf55, PLAU, ATG16L1, UBE2L3, ITLN1, IFNGR2, FGFR1OP, PDGFB – LOC107985575, PTPN22, AP4B1-AS1, ERAP2, ERAP1, IL27, PER3, LOC101927745
- CYCSP42, IL3 – CSF2, LOC107986482 – CPEB4, LACC1, SCARNA5, ATG16L1, TNFSF15, ADAM30 –
NOTCH2, OSMR, LOC105378120 – MIR3939, LOC101927300 – LINC01475, ZGPAT, RBX1 – RPS9P2, LOC107984647, FUT2, LOC105447645, FUT2, LOC105376231 – TNFSF15, LOC105374764, TMEM17, LOC285626, PLCL1, SLAIN2, LOC105374409 – LOC105374410, CDKAL1, LOC105378327, ZNF365, HORMAD2, LOC105372988, CTIF – SMAD7, ZBTB38, LOC105377139 – LOC107983952, MLN, LOC105375024, LOC105371618 – AIMP1P2, LOC105379031, LINC00491, LINC00492, RN7SKP211 – PRDM1, C11orf30 – LOC101928813, JAZF1, TRIB1 – LOC105375746, IFITM4P – 3.8-1.5, LOC105375015, NOTCH4 – LOC101929163, NCR3 – UQCRHP1, LOC105377989, RSPO3, STAT3
Cone rod dystrophy is an inherited disorder of the eye. The prevalence of this condition is 1 in 40,000 people. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing cone rod dystrophy and may exhibit symptoms like: poor clarity of vision, color vision problems, night blindness and loss of peripheral vision.
Genes analyzed: GUCA1A;GUCA1B, GUCA1A, SEMA4A, CDHR1, ABCA4, RPGRIP1, ADAM9, PROM1, PITPNM3, RIMS1, CRX, CACNA1F, CNNM4, GUCY2D, DRAM2, POC1B, C8orf37, PDE6C
Depression is a serious yet common mood disorder which affects the way an individual thinks, feels and handles daily activity. According to WHO, nearly 4.4% of the global population suffers from depression. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing depression and may exhibit symptoms including: changes in sleep, energy level, activity, mood, self esteem and concentration.
Genes analyzed: TPH2, NPAS3, LOC105376081 – ANXA1, CAND1.11, LOC105379109, GPHN, LOC107985792, GRM8, DDX50, SLFN12L, HSPD1P15 – CDH18
Endurance is the body’s capacity to utilize oxygen for energy production and sustain it for a prolonged duration of physical activity. A high endurance individual can sustain an activity for a prolonged duration, with minimal discomforts like breathlessness and fatigue. We have analyzed genes that influence endurance aspects such as the type of fuel used by the cells for energy production, percentage distribution of muscle fibers (slow twitch and fast twitch) and the adaptability of the blood vessels to carry more oxygen.People of certain genetic types are better at endurance based activities than others.
Genes analyzed: KCNJ11, ACOXL, HIF2A, PPARGC1A, HIF2A1, UCP2, AGTR2, PPARD, NFIA-AS2, COL6A1, CRP, ADRB2, GABPB1, CPQ, GNB3, GRM3, HFE, ADRB3, HIF1A, ZNF429, VEGFR2, ITPR11, NATD1, GALM, ACE, VEGFA, TPK1, SOD2, SGMS1, GABPB11, PPARGC1A1, CKMM, PPARD1, UCP3, L3MBTL4, PPARA, PPC3B, ADRB21, ACTN3, IL15RA, ADRB1
The process of exercise causes inflammation and minor tissue damage. During rest periods, the body heals and recovers from this damage. People of certain genetic types recover quickly, while others require longer periods, which influences the frequency of exercise, rehab intensity and supplementation needs.
Genes analyzed: TNF, SOD2
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by an inability of the body to remove low density lipoprotein. The global prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia is 10 million. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing this condition and may exhibit symptoms that include: fatty skin deposits called xanthomas present on hands, elbows, knees and in the cornea of the eye, deposits of cholesterol in the eyelids and signs of coronary artery disease like chest pain.
Genes analyzed: APOB, LDLR, LDLRAP1, PCSK9, STAP1, ABCA1
People of certain genetic type may have lower tolerance to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye. Some people experience symptoms like abdominal cramps, bloating, “foggy mind”, depression, headaches, pain in the bone or joint, diarrhea or constipation and chronic fatigue when they have gluten in their diet but may not test positive for serological determination of celiac disease. When gluten is removed from their diet, these symptoms subside, this condition is known as gluten sensitivity. In some cases (~1% of western population), it may lead to celiac disease.
Genes analyzed: HLA DQ2.2 (M1), HLA-DQ 2.5, HLA DQ2.2 (M2), HLA DQ2.2 (M3), HLA DQ 8
GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE
Glycogen storage disease is a condition characterized by deficiency in enzymes associated with glycogen synthesis and glycogen breakdown. The prevalence of this condition is 1 in 20,000 people. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing glycogen storage disease and may exhibit symptoms like: bruising easily, low blood sugar, abdominal bloating, slow growth and weak muscles and muscle cramping.
Genes analyzed: PFKM, PYGL, PYGM, GBE1, GAA, G6PC, GYG1, PGAM2, AGL, ENO3, PHKB, GYS1
Gout is a severe form of inflammatory arthritis that is characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in and around the joints. The incidence of gout is 2 to 6 times higher among men than among women. People of certain genetic types are at a high risk of developing gout and may exhibit symptoms like: Pain in joints like ankle, knee, toe or foot, swelling, stiffness, redness or physical deformity.
Genes analyzed: FAM35A, ABCG2, MAP3K11, OR13C3 – OR13C8, BCAS3, SLC2A9, RFX3 – RFX3-AS1, KCNQ1, CYP2E1, PKD2 – ABCG2, SLC2A9, LOC105374476, CNIH2, SLC22A1
HAND GRIP STRENGTH
Muscle strength, measured by hand grip strength, is an accessible and widely used proxy of muscular ﬁtness. Hand grip strength is associated with frailty and risk of fracture. People of certain genetic types have a better hand grip strength than others.
Genes analyzed: GBF1, PEX14, HOXB3, SLC8A1, MGMT, UCP3, KANSL1, ERP27, LRPPRC
HDL CHOLESTEROL LEVELS WITH EXERCISE
Regular exercise helps in increasing your HDL cholesterol levels. People of certain genetic types experience a greater increase in HDL levels than others.
Genes analyzed: PPARD
Iron is essential for oxygen transport through the blood. Its deficiency leads to anemia. People of certain genetic type need more iron in their diet as they have reduced ability to absorb iron from the diet.
Genes analyzed: TMPRRS61, TMPRRS6, TFR2, TF, SLC17A1
Tendons and ligaments are dense connective tissues made of collagen or elastin fibers that run parallel to each other, creating strong cords. Ligaments connect bone to bone to form joints — such as knees, elbows, hips and ankles. People of certain genetic types may have stronger ligaments than others.
Genes analyzed: COL1A1, CILP
Do you normally feel excessively tired after exercise? If yes, the answer to this may be in the expression of certain genes in your body. Lactate is the preferred source of fuel for energy production in the exercising muscle when there is a lack of oxygen (anaerobic metabolism). When muscles use up energy during physical activity, there is lactate build-up, which can lead to muscle fatigue. Apart from this, exercise-induced rise in inflammation and sub-optimal flexibility could also be contributing factors for muscle fatigue. People of certain genetic types have better flexibility than others.
Genes analyzed: MCT1, TNF
People of certain genetic type stop producing the enzyme lactase in late childhood. Lactase is needed to breakdown the sugar lactose present in milk. These individuals may experience gastrointestinal symptoms upon consuming large quantities of milk as adults.
Genes analyzed: MCM6
Magnesium helps in maintaining normal nerve and muscle function and helps maintain strong bones. It is also important for regulating blood glucose levels and in the production of energy and amino acids.
Genes analyzed: MUC1, MDS1, DCDC5, HOXD9, CASR, SHROOM3
Power is the rapid burst of energy observed during high intensity activities of shorter duration.Type II or fast twitch muscle fibers allow us to perform rapid, high intensity movements. The ability of blood vessels to constrict and make oxygen utilization more efficient is also important for power. We have analyzed genes that influence the percentage distribution of muscle fibers (slow twitch and fast twitch) and their ability to exert maximal power over a short period of time. People of certain genetic types are better at power based activities than others.
Genes analyzed: GPC5, CKM, NOS3, TPK1, SLC16A1, RC3H1, PPARA, ACTN3, IL6, CREM, ADRB2, AMPD1, UCP2, EPAS11, HSD17B14, HIF1A, SUCLA2, IP6K3, MPRIP, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, VDR2, WAPAL, DMD, COTL1, VDR1, AGT, EPAS1, AGTR2, ADRB21, PPARG, CRP, TRHR, IGF1
Phosphate is necessary for the formation of bones and teeth and is also used as a building block for several important molecules including DNA. People of certain genetic type need more phosphate in their diet as they have decreased phosphate levels in blood.
Genes analyzed: CASR, TKT
SALT INTAKE AND BLOOD PRESSURE SENSITIVITY
Sodium is an essential electrolyte present in the extra cellular fluid. It regulates osmosis and maintains fluid levels within the cell and it also plays an important role in enzyme functions and contraction of muscles. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends not more than 2300 mg of salt per day; however, most people eat too much salt. On an average 3400 mg of salt is consumed with most of it coming from processed foods. People of certain genetic type will have higher blood pressure in response to high salt consumption. Nearly 50% of hypertensive people are salt-sensitive, which is associated with a rise in BP with salt intake. These individuals will tend toreduce BP with lower salt intake, which is recommended.
Genes analyzed: CYP11B2, AGT, ACE, NPPA, SGK1
SATURATED FATS INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN TENDENCY
Saturated fats are a type of fat that are largely solid at room temperature as they are saturated with hydrogen molecules. Meat and dairy products are rich sources of saturated fats. A high intake of saturated fats is associated with an increase in LDL cholesterol levels in the body. The American Heart Association recommends no more than 5-6% of calories from saturated fat from the daily diet. People of certain genetic type tend to gain more weight upon consuming saturated fat rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by reducing the amount ofsaturated fats in their diets
Genes analyzed: FTO, APOA2
Tendons and ligaments are dense connective tissues made of collagen or elastin fibers that run parallel to each other, creating strong cords. A tendon is a band of fibrous connective tissue which connects muscle to tenocytes, increasing their tensile strength. People of certain genetic types have a better tendon strength than others.
Genes analyzed: GDF5, COL1A1, MMP31, MMP3, MMP32
WEIGHT LOSS OR WEIGHT GAIN WITH EXERCISE
Regular exercise aids in weight management via improved metabolism. People of certain genetic types may benefit more than others in terms of weight loss in response to exercise.
Genes analyzed: FTO, ADRB2, INSIG2
AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
Age related macular degeneration is a condition in which there is blurring of sight or loss of central vision. According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , there are 1.8 million people with AMD. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing AMD and may exhibit the following symptoms: sudden or a gradual change in the quality of vision, straight lines could appear distorted, difficulty or loss of vision in dim light and leading to drastic loss in central vision.
Genes analyzed: ABCA4, C9, FGD6, SLC44A4, LOC101929705, C6orf223, CETP, C3, ARMS2, HTRA1, RAX2, CFH, FBLN5, C2, C2;CFB, CX3CR1, MBP – GALR1, LOC105378525, ARMS2, NELFE, CFI, LINC01101 – LOC105373585, GLI3, CLIC5, LOC105375078, LOC105373585, NMRK2 – DAPK3, COX5BP4 – C1DP5, COL8A1, LOC389641, REST, FRK, NOTCH4, LOC105375013 – LINC00243, TGFBR1, LOC105378525, NT5DC1, COL10A1, SKIV2L, CCDC109B, CFB, RAD51B, LOC101928635, C2, C2-AS1, LOC107986598, B3GALTL, SYN3, COL4A3, LOC654841, LOC101928635, LIPC, APOE, LOC105373027, SLC16A8
For early-onset Alzheimer’s, more than 150 mutations of the presenilin-1 PSEN1, presenilin-2 PSEN2, and amyloid precursor protein APP genes have been associated with autosomally dominant inheritance (of early-onset ALZ).
The most notable late-onset SNPs are
- APP rs63750847 rare 1% geno is protective
- APOE rs7412 and rs429358 rare 3% genotype increases risk
- PLD3 rs145999145 rare 4% genotype doubles risk
- TREM2 rs75932628
- TM2D3 rs139709573, at least in Icelanders
APOE-ε4 homozygosity (gs216) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s PMID 15956169. However, according to some studies, APOE-ε4 differences only affect cognition significantly after age 60. The memory changes that occur from 20 to 60 may not be connected to APOE-ε4 at all. See People at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s age mentally just like noncarriers. Other studies, however, show brain changes and decreases in cognitive function in epsilon-4 carriers starting at an early age.
Conversely: although SNPs in the MAPT gene do not influence the risk of having Alzheimer’s, they appear to lead to increased MAPT mRNA production, which leads to increased levels of the tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid, which ultimately led to an earlier age of onset of Alzheimer symptoms (in those who eventually developed Alzheimer’s). So if – and only if – a person is fated to develop Alzheimer’s for other reasons, then these MAPT SNPs are correlated with exhibiting symptoms sooner. PMID 18541914
One hypothesis is that genes relevant to viral infection, and in particular herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infection, may increase the risk for Alzheimer’s, especially in individuals already predisposed to Alzheimer’s, such as those carrying APOE-ε4 alleles. PMID 16406033 In connection to this hypothesis, rs2254958, a SNP in a gene influencing HSV-1 infection, has been found in higher frequency in certain AD patients. PMID 17420072
Two studies (Caffeine Reverses Cognitive Impairment and Decreases Brain Amyloid-? Levels in Aged Alzheimer’s Disease Mice and Caffeine Suppresses Amyloid-? Levels in Plasma and Brain of Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mice published in the July 2009 issue of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease point to caffeine as reducing a protein (beta amyloid) that is a sign of Alzheimer’s disease. More recent studies (such as “High Blood Caffeine Levels in MCI Linked to Lack of Progression to Dementia”) have lent further support to this finding.
List of related genes
- SNPs defining a haplotype of the TRPC4AP gene on chromosome 20q11.22 appear to be associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease in two large affected families. The relevance outside of these families is unclear. PMID 18449908
- Multiple genetic variants in SORL1 are associated with AD. SORL1 and APOE associations differ markedly 
- rs5984894, X-linked and formerly thought to be associated with increased risk in females; has not held up in further studies
- SNPs in the CLU, CR1 and PICALM genes, rs11136000, rs3818361, and rs3851179, which have been replicated in independent (European-descent) populations
- rs10519262, an intergenic SNP on ch 15
- rs908832 a SNP in ABCA2, associated with a 3.8x risk for early-onset AD
- rs1050283 in the OLR1 gene may increase risk for both early- and late-onset Alzheimer’s PMID 18191876
- rs2227564 a SNP in PAU
- rs2333227 in the MPO gene, and rs669 in the A2M gene, and possible synergistic interaction between them
- rs2373115 is one of several SNPs in the GAB2 gene that are associated with a 3-4X higher risk of Alzheimer’s PMID 17553421
- rs2986017 a SNP in the CALHM1 gene
- rs3025786 which can decrease risk slightly among APOE-ε4 carriers
- rs5963409 in the OTC gene promoter region
- PMID 17998437 A study of ~1100 Canadian and UK patients found significant risks (positive or negative) associated with SNPs rs10868366, rs7019241, rs9886784
- PMID 17293537 Alzheimer’s disease risk for non APOE-ε4 carriers is affected by the heterozygous form of rs6265, as well as the diplotypes of rs6265, rs11030104, and rs2049045.
- PMID 17221831 The G51S purine nucleoside phosphorylase polymorphism is associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease patients.
- PMID 17517621 Common genetic variation within the Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease
- A SNP in the PON1 gene PMID 16319130
- A SNP in intron 9 of the CHAT gene PMID 16223550
- 2 SNPs in the DAPK1 gene, rs4878104 and rs4877365 PMID 16847012, PMID 16847012
- SNPs in the DNMBP gene PMID 16740596, PMID 18359537
- Several SNPs in the MME gene, most notably, rs1836915 PMID 17928142
- A SNP in the TLR4 gene, rs4986790, with many disease associations PMID 18991680
- A SNP in the BACE1 gene, rs4938369 PMID 19441127
- “Supergene” gives long life, clear mind Lucidity in old age may be associated with the CETP VV genotype
- Gene tied to longevity also preserves ability to think clearly
- An estimated 25 percent of the population has a protective XmnI polymorphism of the fetal hemoglobin gene that may reduce risk of Alzheimer’s
- Numerous SNPs in the ACE gene are associated with susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease. 
Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the airways of the lungs. According to CDC,
- Million people across the world suffered from asthma in 2010. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing asthma and may exhibit the following symptoms: wheezing, chest pain, difficulty in breathing and coughing.
Genes analyzed: MS4A2, HNMT, ADRB2, LOC105379121 – TSLP, TLR1, LOC105371081, CLEC16A, LOC100216346 – RNU6-1213P, GSDMA, RANBP6 – GTF3AP1, PLA2G7, SLC24A2, LOC105371272 – LOC105371273, DCLK1, TRPM8, LOC105371544 – LOC107985014, IPCEF1, OPRM1, LOC105373262 – LOC107985371, HPSE2, RNU2-47P – TYRP1, SRIP1 – LOC105377671, LOC105377956 – LOC105377953, CDHR3, LOC107984373 – LOC387820, GTF3AP1 – IL33, LOC100130207, RAD50, RORA, NNMT – LOC101928940, PTGES, MRPL11P2 – LOC105378204, LOC105370234 – LINC00376, LOC107984238, GAB1, IL1RL1, LOC105755953 – LOC101928272, PYHIN1, GSDMB, PDE4D, RAD50, LOC101927761, PBX2, IL2RB, CRB1, HCG23, LOC101929163, HLA-DRA – HLA-DRB9, LOC101929163, C6orf10, IL18R1, NOTCH4, LRRC3C, LOC100287014 – LOC105377623, BTNL2 – HLA-DRA, LOC102725019 – HLA-DQA2, BRD2 – HLA-DOA, HLA-DPA1, IL13, TRPA1 – LOC105375896
Atrial fibrillation is a heart condition in which there is an irregular heartbeat with increased heart rate. The prevalence of this condition ranges between 0.2 to 0.4 per 1000 people. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing this condition and may exhibit symptoms like: dizziness, increased heart rate, shortness of breath, palpitations and weakness.
Genes analyzed: GORAB – LOC105371610, KCNN3, PKP2, ZFHX3, LY96, MYBPC3, KCNA5, KCNE2, PITX2 – MIR297, ABCC9, KCNQ1, SCN5A, KCNH2, KCNJ2, SCN3B, GJA5, ASAH1, RANP6 – LOC107986203, LOC107985401, WNT8A, NEBL, LOC102725112, CUX2, CAV1, C9orf3, LOC105378360, HCN4
Autism includes a range of disorders which are associated with challenges with speech, social skills, speech, repetitive behavior and non-verbal communication. According to Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in the U.S, 1 in 68 children surveyed were found to have autism spectrum disorder. Heritability of autism ranges from 40 to 80%. People of certain genetic types are associated with an increased risk of developing autism and may exhibit symptoms like: learning disability, inability to focus, unaware of other’s emotions, sensitivity to sound.
Genes analyzed: PTEN, MECP2, CHD8, TSC1, CYFIP1, RBFOX1, WWOX, CSMD1, FTSJ2, LOC105375523 – LOC100421642, LOC101927026, LOC105373767 – LOC105373768, FAM155A – LIG4, C2orf82, RNA5SP169 – LOC100996286, LOC105369550, PPP2R2B, FOXN2 – PPP1R21, KMT2A, GRIN2A, RNA5SP459 – TCF4, LOC652549 – ADGRL4, NTRK3, LOC105379172 – HINT1, LOC105379365
– RPL10AP3, ZMIZ1, ZNF804A, LOC105375695, LOC107987043, CACNA1C, ANK3, LOC107984265, C10orf32-ASMT, AS3MT, LOC107985969, KIF21B, ITIH3, CACNB2, DPCR1, LOC107984934 – LOC101929406, LOC105375629 – LOC105375631, CNNM2, LOC105370359 – LOC107984602, TRI- AAT5-4 – TRV-CAC6-1, CNOT1, CNOT1 – SLC38A7, LOC105376107, TSNARE1, HCN1, TRV-TAC4-1 – TRS-ACT1-1, BTN3A2, LOC105372125, LOC105378992, CTC-436P18.1, LOC105378992, CACNA1I, GIGYF2, MSH5-SAPCD1, MSH5, TCF4, CNTNAP2, EN2, GLO1, LOC101929359 – TAS2R1, NEDD1 – TRQ-TTG9-1, PPP2R5C, TAF1C, TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33, TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33; TRIM33, MACROD2, MSNP1 – RNU4-43P, TRIM33, AMPD1 – RN7SL432P
Antioxidants play a key role in reducing the ill effects of ‘free radicals’ and thereby preventing premature aging, tissue damage and the onset of chronic diseases. They are present in many vegetables, fruits, cereals, green tea, etc. People of certain genetic type have lower efficiency to defend themselves against free radical damage and hence require more antioxidants in their diet.
Genes analyzed: NAT1, XRCC1, SOD21, SOD2, PON11, GPX1, CAT, PON1
Bone mineral density (BMD) is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue. The higher the bone mineral strength, the stronger the bones are. BMD is highly heritable according to many research studies. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of low bone mineral density and thereby at risk for osteoporosis or fractures.
Genes analyzed: COL1A1, CALCR, DACH2 – KLHL4, LOC105377045 – MRPS31P1, LOC105373519 – LOC728815, COLEC10, MEPE – HSP90AB3P, WHSC1L2P – SOST, C17orf53, HDAC5, GNG12-AS1, WLS, ESR1, LOC102724957, LOC101060363 – LOC105376856, LOC105375411, ARHGAP1 – ZNF408, MGC57346-CRHR1, XKR9, RBMS3, ADAMTS18, FABP3P2 – LOC105370177, LOC100133286, LOC105376360, LOC101927880, PTH – HMGN2P36, LOC105370177 – TNFSF11, NME8, WNT16 – FAM3C, KIAA2018, GPATCH1, C7orf76, LOC105375411, TMEM263, MARK3, LOC105375075 – LOC101929770, MEF2C, RHEBL1 – DHH, RPS6KA5, LOC105377992 – LOC105377989, CPED1, RPS3AP2- PTX4, MEF2C-AS1, LOC105378305, LOC107983964 – LOC101927334, DCDC5, LOC105369301, CLDN14, MAPT, CCDC170, LOC105373578 – LOC107985815, SP7, JAG1, LOC105378008 – RPL23AP46, LOC107984507, LEKR1, LRP5, IDUA, WNT16, MPP7, LOC102724072, LOC105375723 – TNFRSF11B, LOC105375411, C7orf76, SMG6, DNM3, FAM210A, CSRNP3 – GALNT3, IDUA – FGFRL1, KCNMA1 – LOC105378372, CPN1, FOXL1 – LOC101928614, LOC107985015 – LOC102723505, HOXC5, HOXC4, HOXC6, LOC105374517 – PKDCC, ABCF2, FUBP3, LOC105369709 – PTHLH, TNFRSF11A, FAM3C, FMN2
Genes analyzed: GDF5, COL1A1, MMP31, MMP3, MMP32
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a progressive lung disease which is characterized by breathlessness. This includes emphysema, bronchitis and asthma. According to WHO, 251 million cases of COPD existed in 2016. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and may exhibit the following symptoms: Shortness of breath, wheezing, frequent respiratory infections, inability to exercise and chest tightness.
Genes analyzed: P2RX7, LOC105370032, MIR99AHG, LOC105370514 – LOC101927690, TRSUP- CTA2-1 – WNT7A, KAZN, RPS26P35 – LOC105375723, RNF150, LOC105377897 – COPS5P1, C1DP3 – C1DP2, PSORS1C1, ECSCR – TMEM173, LOC102723765 – AHNAK, LOC100288974 – SFTPD, HLA-C – USP8P1, NPM1P35 – ASRGL1, SCGB1A1, LOC102723765, TMEM254 – RPL22P18, SFTPD, TMEM254, ATP2C2, MMP3 – MMP12, RIN3, FAM13A, LOC105377327, IREB2, ELOVL4, KLHL7 – NUPL2, PPP4R4, HTR4, LOC107986462, CYS1, CRACR2B, LOC105373614 – LOC107985945, HSPA12A
CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradual loss of kidney function. According to The National Kidney Foundation, 10% of the global population suffers from chronic kidney disease. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease and may exhibit symptoms like : fatigue, loss of appetite, malaise, weight loss, itching, insufficient urine production.
Genes analyzed: ZNF343, LOC105373651 – LOC100289623, OR1J2, HS3ST6 – MSRB1, LOC105374007, LOC105374005, SALL4P5 – RPL24P7, UMOD, MADD, STC1 – LOC107986931, SLC22A2, LOC100533853
– RNU6-953P, TFDP2, SLC13A3, DACH1, SLC34A1, CST3
Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscles. The prevalence of this condition is 1 in 500 people. People of certain genetic types are at an increased risk of developing cardiomyopathy and may exhibit symptoms like: Chest pain, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath or weight gain.
Genes analyzed: NEBL, MYBPC3, TPM1, TNNI3, PRKAG2, MYH7, MYL2, ILK, TNNT2, ACTC1, MYL3, DSP, CTNNA3, LMNA, TTN, FHL2, DES, VCL, TXNRD2, RAF1, LDB3, DTNA, PDLIM3, MYOM1, JPH2, NEXN, CALR3, MYOZ2, MYH6, TNNC1, CSRP3, MYLK2, SCN5A, FKTN, DNAAF3;TNNI3, TNNI3;TNNT1, RBM20, EYA4, BAG3, ACTN2, PSEN2, PSEN1, ANKRD1, TMPO, DMD, PLN, TCAP, PRDM16, SGCD, MYPN, LAMA4, CRYAB, DNAJB6, ZBTB17, LAMP2, LINC00951 – TDRG1, TIAM1, AGK, CAV3, RYR2, DSC2, GATAD1, TMEM43;XPC, DSG2, JUP, PKP2, TMEM43, ABCC9, EMD, ALMS1, TTN;TTN-AS1
Certain individuals readily take up physical activity, while others lack the motivation for it. Neuro chemicals produced by the body in response to exercise influence how much we get habituated to physical activity and hence are motivated to repeat it again and again. People of certain genetic types take to physical activity more readily than others.
Genes analyzed: BDNF
Epilepsy constitutes a group of disorders which are characterized by epileptic seizures. These seizures are associated with vigorous shaking, which can last from a short unnoticeable period to longer periods. According to WHO, approximately 50 million people across the world live with epilepsy. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing epilepsy and may exhibit symptoms like: jerking movements that are uncontrollable, amnesia, anxiety, feeling of pins and needles and depression.
Genes analyzed: CPA6, SCN1A, ALDH7A1, PRICKLE1, GOSR2, SCARB2, PRICKLE2, KCTD7, EFHC1, TBC1D24, LOC101929680, SCN1A, MEF2C, EPM2A, GABRA1, RBFOX1, PNPO, GABRG2, SCN9A, SCN1B, KCNMA1, CACNB4, SYN1, NHLRC1, CSTB, CHRNA2, CHRNA4, LGI1, SLC2A1, CASR, CACNA1H, SPATA5, GRIN2A, DEPDC5, GABRB3, CLCN2, COTL1, LOC105377628 – VRK2, MAST4, LINC01412 – TEX41, CHRM3, LOC105377632, LOC101927235, COPZ2, SCN1A, LOC102724058, MMP8, CAMSAP2, PCDH7 – LOC102723778, GABRG1 – GABRA2, LOC101927078 – TRIM36, SCN8A, KCNT1, CNTNAP2, POLG, KCNQ3, CHRNB2, ST3GAL5
Flexibility is the ability of your joints and muscles to move freely (Range of motion). It is important in fitness because it allows for better range of movement when playing sports or exercising. Flexibility is attributed to the protein collagen and the extracellular matrix that surrounds the cells. We have analyzed the genes that could potentially influence your flexibility and performance by influencing composition of ligaments and tendons. People of certain genetic types have better flexibility when compared to others.
Genes analyzed: ACTN3
Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that are formed in the gallbladder. The prevalence of gallstones was 4.15%, more in females than in males. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk of developing gallstones than others and may exhibit symptoms like: Abdominal cramping or discomfort, nausea or vomiting.
Genes analyzed: ABCG8, SULT2A1
Glaucoma is a condition in which the fluid pressure of the eye increases. Approximately 3 million Americans suffer from glaucoma, however, only about a half of them know that they have it. People of certain genetic types have a higher risk of developing glaucoma and may exhibit symptoms like: Blurred or hazy vision, rainbow like circles around bright lights, severe pain in the eye, nausea or vomiting.
Genes analyzed: WDR36, LTBP2, CYP1B1, MYOC, NTF4, ASB10, CDKN2B-AS1, GMDS, LOC105376196, LOC105375694 – RPL23P9, CAV2 – CAV1, AFAP1, LOC440700 – TMCO1, DPM2 – FAM102A, TXNRD2, EPDR1, COL11A1, LOC102724330 – ST18, PLEKHA7, LOC105376196 – LOC107987106, LOXL1, LOXL1-AS1, GCM1, DERA, SRBD1, DNAJC24, ELP4, TBC1D21, LOXL1, OPTN
Heart Capacity is the ability of the heart to increase cardiac output to meet increased needs foroxygen during physical activity or exercise. Cardiac capacity is a combination of the physical condition of the heart and aerobic fitness level. People of certain genetic types have better heart capacity than others.
Genes analyzed: NOS3, NPY
Heart disease includes coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and heart attack. The different types of heart diseases are identified by a variety of signs and symptoms and only a cardiologist is qualified to diagnose these conditions, definitively. People of certain genetic types are at a higher risk for heart disease and should watch out for signs that include: shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue, sweating, palpitations, and an ache in the chest.
Genes analyzed: GATA6, LPL, APOC3, DNAJC5B, CD36, KALRN, PPAP2B, CUX2, MIA3, INPP5D, ASIC2, LOC107985038, TRH-GTG1-1 – TRK-CTT2-1; HFE2, FHL5 – RPS7P8, PHACTR1, FMN2, PECAM1, LOC105373786, TFPI, ASZ1 – LOC100130680, CDH13, LOC105377873 – LINC01526, HEMGN – ANP32B, CHRDL1, LINC00333, LOC105370289, BTD, BCAP29, HECTD4, GNN; GNN, HLA-DQB1 – MTCO3P1, LOC107986049 – TOMM22P6; LOC107986049 – TOMM22P6, SMG6, CNNM2, PEMT – LOC105371564, CDKN2B-AS1, LIPA, ANKS1A, LOC105377504 – GUCY1A3, LOC105373461 – CISD1P1, HNF1A, MRAS, CYP1A1 – CYP1A2, KIAA1462, HHIPL1, LOC646736 – LOC105373915, LPA, ADAMTS7 – LOC390614, UBE2Z, ALDH2, ATP2B1, STK32B; STK32B, LPA; LPA; LPAL2; SLC22A3, LOC101929163, LOC105369463 – LOC102723862, GATA4, STX18-AS1, PIGL, LOC105371642, ZNF648, NKX2-5, JAG1
INSULIN SENSITIVITY WITH EXERCISE
Exercise generally improves your insulin sensitivity. People of certain genetic types experience greater improvements than others.
Genes analyzed: LIPC
Total lung capacity, or TLC, refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. People of certain genetic types have higher lung capacity than others.
Genes analyzed: ADRB1, APOE1, APOE
Sportsmen and runners who place stress on the Achilles tendon have the greatest likelihood of muscle injury and tendinopathy. The Achilles tendon connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. Tendinopathy refers to injury to the tendon. People of certain genotypes are more prone to injury than others and are at increased risk of tendinopathy and other related injuries.
Genes analyzed: MCT1, MMP3
MONO UNSATURATED FATS INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN TENDENCY
Monounsaturated fatty acids include omega-7 and omega 9 fatty acids. They are associated with anti-inflammatory properties, lowering blood pressure, maintaining triglyceride levels. MUFAs are also found to benefit skin health as they balance water levels and provide ceramides for skin renewal. The Mediterranean diet is rich in MUFA. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming MUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by balancing the amount of MUFA in their diets. Given that MUFA is beneficial for overall health and particularly heart health, individuals with the weight gain genotype can increase the amount of exercise to compensate for the increased risk of weight gain.
Genes analyzed: NR1D1, PPARG, ADIPOQ
PROTEIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT LOSS TENDENCY
Protein is an important building block for bones, skin, blood, cartilage and muscles, and it is present in every cell in the body. Nails, hair, enzymes, hormones and other body chemicals consist of large amounts of protein. Moreover, our body utilizes protein to build and repair tissues. People of certain genetic type tend to benefit more in terms of weight maintenance with high protein intake than others
Genes analyzed: FTO
POLY UNSATURATED FATS INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN TENDENCY
Omega 3s are important for brain and heart health as they reduce blood pressure and triglyceride levels. They are also important for skin and vision health. Omega 6s help in bone health and in stimulating hair growth. People of certain genetic type tend to gain weight upon consuming PUFA rich foods than others. These individuals can better maintain weight by lowering the amount of PUFA in their diets or increasing physical activity. Importantly, targeting the Omega3: Omega6 ratio is recommended, with preference towards Omega 3.
Genes analyzed: BDNF
Selenium helps in the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes and in maintaining a healthy immune system. People of certain genetic type may benefit from selenium supplementation.
Genes analyzed: CBS
TENDENCY TO GAINWEIGHT
People of certain genetic type have more of a tendency to gain weight than others due to their genetic makeup. Genes that regulate metabolic rate, energy expenditure and energy storage influence the tendency to store calories versus expending calories. Certain genes that once offered a survival advantage to our ancestors by storing calories for leaner times have now become liabilities in the age of surplus food availability. Your genetic profile influences the tendency of your body to store or expend more calories.
Genes analyzed: ADRB1, PCSK1, UCP2, GNPDA2, MAF, MC4R, SEC16B, KCTD15, ADRB2, STK33, LEP, FTO, SH2B1, ADIPOQ, NEGR1, ADRB21, TMEM18, ETV5, MTCH2, BDNF, UCP3
TENDENCY TO OVEREAT
People of certain genetic type have more of a tendency to over consume foods. We analyze genes that are known to influence various hunger and satiety hormones such as Leptin, Ghrelin and Neuropeptides, which influence neurological aspects of feeding; producing affects such as persistent hunger, excessive snacking, preference for high calorific food and emotional eating.
Genes analyzed: DRD2, CLOCK, TAS2R38, MC4R, FTO
TENDENCY TO PREFER FATTY FOODS
People of certain genetic type tend to over consume fatty foods due to a lower ability to perceive fats. In studies, people with lower fat perception ability were found to rate the fat content of food consistently lower than the actual fat content. Eating high quantities of fatty food can lead to weight gain and other health conditions.
Genes analyzed: CD361
TENDENCY TO REGAINWEIGHT
People of certain genetic type tend to quickly regain weight after having been on a weight loss program. These individuals need to continue adherence to exercise and diet program to maintain optimal weight.
Genes analyzed: TFAP2B, ADIPOQ, PPARG, BDNF
TENDENCY TO PREFER BITTER FOODS
Bitter taste perception is due to genetic variations in taste receptors. When food is chewed in the mouth, molecules such as phenylthiocarbamide bind to the taste receptors present in the tongue, which gives rise to the bitter taste. People of certain genetic type tend to avoid bitter vegetables due to higher sensitivity to bitter taste. Vegetables are low calorie and high fibre foods, which help in weight management and have several health benefits.
Genes analyzed: TAS2R382, TAS2R381, TAS2R38
TENDENCY TO PREFER SWEET FOODS
People of certain genetic type tend to over consume sweet foods due to low sensitivity to sweet taste, either due to lesser number or reduced sensitivity of sweet taste receptors on their tongue. Sugary foods are rich in calories and can cause insulin resistance, leading to weight gain and other health conditions.
Genes analyzed: TAS2R381, GLUT2, TAS1R31, TAS1R2, TAS1R21, TAS2R382, TAS2R38, TAS1R3
VITAMIN A NEEDS
Vitamin A is required for clear vision, healthy skin and enhanced immunity. Animal sources provide Vitamin A in the form of retinol, while some plant sources provide the precursor of Vitamin A in the form of carotenes, which in turn must be converted to retinol. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin A in their diet due to less efficient conversion of carotenoids to retinol.
Genes analyzed: PKD1L2, CYP26B1, PKD1L21, BCMO1, BCM01
VITAMIN B9 NEEDS
Vitamin B9 or folate plays a major role in DNA synthesis and repair. It is also essential for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. Excess accumulation of homocysteine can be harmful. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B9 in their diet due to lower folate levels and an inefficient enzymatic conversion of homocysteine to methionine.
Genes analyzed: MTHFR
VITAMIN B6 NEEDS
Vitamin B6 is required for the proper utilization of sugars, fats and proteins in the body. It also protects the cells against glycation-induced damage. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B6 in their diet as they lack the ability to fully metabolize this vitamin leading to its low levels in the body.
Genes analyzed: NBPF3, ALPL1
VITAMIN B12 NEEDS
Vitamin B12 is actively involved in red blood cell maturity and its deficiency can lead to pernicious anemia and general fatigue. It also helps in the removal of homocysteine from the cells. People of certain genetic type need more Vitamin B12 in their diet due to lower levels in the body.
Genes analyzed: FUT2, RASIP1, TCN1